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Electric heating of water or other fluids with a storage tank.

Hot water tank

The heating of fluids with a storage tank is used when the flow is discontinuous allowing the gradual accumulation of thermal energy.

Although this kind of heating is used by a lot of industrial plants, the most common heater with a storage tank is the boiler.

The energy balance of this method in comparison with that without storing are almost the same but the possibility of to heat the fluid in a longer time allows a drastic reduction of the electric power installed.

For a correct design is necessary to valuate the quantity of fluid to store and the electric power of heating that must be installed, making sure that the avaiability of heated fluid is greater then the required.

There are two ways to increase the stored energy limiting the dimensions of the tank, also both avaible:
- Increase the fluid temperature and then dilute it in the usage phase.
- Increase the mass of the tank (choosing the right material).

Data input
Fluid characteristic

Selection kind of fluid

Fluid density

Attesa valore

kg/l (kg/dm3)

Specific heat


Volume of fluid to heat

l (dm3)

Tank characteristics

Tank material

Material density

Attesa valore


Specific heat of the material


When there is an external warmer and a recirculation, you must insert all the masses.

Tank mass


Insulation characteristics

Kind of insulation

Thermal conductivity

Attesa parametri

W/m K

Insulation thickness


Exposed surface


Electric warmer characteristics

Installed power


Work conditions

Ambient temperature


Fluid starting temperature


Required fluid temperature


Waiting for calculation

Time necessary to reach the temperature h
Thermal energy stored kW
Thermal energy stored (equivalent) kcal
Wasted thermal energy during the warming W
Hourly thermal energy wasted at the max temperature W/h

The results are valid until the fluid reaches the 90% of the boiling temperature at the work pressure of the system, over the latent heat begins to be important and here is not considered.

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