Claredot logo

Continuous electric heating of water or other fluids.

Circuit scheme of continuous electric heating of fluids

It calculates the thermal and electric energy needed to heat a fluid with a continuous flow rate. It gives also the necessary values for design the electrical supply circuit.

Data input
Fluid properties

Kind of fluid

Fluid density

Wait fluid parameters


Fluid specific heat


System requirements

Temperature of the inlet fluid


Temperature of the output fluid required


Fluid flow rate


Electrical data (optional)

Mono-phase line or dc current

Tri-phase line, star configuration

Tri-phase line, delta configuration

Supply voltage


Wait calculate

Required energy kW
Equivalent thermal power kcal
Required current in steady-state A
Supply voltage on each resistor V
Electrical resistance in steady-state (each resistor) ohm

The output fluid will have a flow rate slightly higher than at the inlet, here the coefficient of expansion is not considered.

Results valid until the temperature doesn't reach the 90% of the boiling temperature of the choosed fluid at the working pressure of the circuit, over these values, some ignored factors like latent heat of evaporation, coefficient of expansion etc.. become important.

Electric heaters have a positive coefficient of electric resistance, the cold start needs higher current, so the thermal energy given at the beginning is higher and stabilize after a certain time depending by the mass to be heat (contained fluid + container + resistance).

The container mass of the heater is ignored, at the steady-state, if insulated, is pratically insignificant.

Want to help us improve ?