When a conductor carries electricity a quite part of the energy is converted to heat due to the Joule effect, the heat is lost in the surrounding by convenction and radiation.
The steady-state temperature depends on a lot of factors such as the conductor resistance, current intensity, exposed surface, ambient temperature and coloring.
The conductor could be a simple electrical cable not insulated, a power cable with rectangular section but also the heating element of a resistor.
Selection of conductor material
Heat transfer coefficient
Current which flows
Inductive reactance (XL)
Total conductor resistance
Resulting voltage drop
Due to the inductive reactance, when the current is not direct but alternating the resistance increases.
In this case reactance is not considered because too variable, depending on dimensions, path and on what there is nearby of the conductor itself.
For instance, a conductor with these characteristics:
It has the following characteristics: